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Tamils believe in simple living and high thinking and their marriages are also a simple affair. Tamil weddings are usually attended by near and dear ones. Hence their weddings are not necessarily extravagant affairs. Tamils consider matrimony very auspicious, so, they are very cautious at every step. Tamil marriages involve many rituals and customs like all other Indian marriages and matrimonials. The date for the wedding is usually fixed after consulting the Hindu calendar. According to the Tamil calendar, the months of Aashad (July 15th to August 15th), Bhadrapad (September 15th to October 15th) and Shunya (December 15th to January 15th) are considered inauspicious for weddings and hence, Tamilian weddings are not held in these months.

Before the wedding celebrations:

The groom is welcomed by bride father to the mandapam (place where the wedding rituals are carried out). The bride’s mother applies kajal in the groom’s eyes and father washes his feet. Through this gesture the father conveys that that the boy is a personification of Lord Vishnu and believes that he will take care of his daughter. The father and bride offer the coconut to the groom while the bride’s mother pours water over the coconut which symbolises the ‘giving away of their daughter.’ Then the groom’s parents gift the bride a nine yard sari and a blouse to be worn for next moment, the auspicious occasion of tying the mangasultra

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childrens timberland boots Aboriginal artist Peter Mungkuri wins inaugural Hadley

timberland nellie Aboriginal artist Peter Mungkuri wins inaugural Hadley

“With less and less funding opportunities from federal, national, state [governments] and also less and less commercial galleries, these prizes are becoming more important for artists to have their work seen,” Dr Gough said.

Ms Slade said $100,000 was a game changer for an artist.

“Keep in mind that artists are among the lowest earners in the country,” she said.

“It might afford them to keep their studio, rent, it might afford them to extend their practice, it may afford them the opportunity to travel, to work in a medium or media they haven’t considered before.”

Amundsen linked prize may be next

Following the success of the new competition, the founder is already planning to introduce a second award next year.

One of the owners of the Hadley’s Hotel, Don Neil, personally paid for the prize and the costs of establishing it.

Mr Neil said he wanted to see the hotel grow as an art venue.

“At my age, you don’t buy green bananas,” he said.

“I want to move on and get another one going next year and expand the art theme so it’s not just a one off every year.”

Mr Neil is considering designing a prize around Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who led the first expedition to reach the South Pole in 1911 and telegraphed his achievement from the hotel.

“He stayed here [at Hadley’s] and he’s a legend in Scandinavia,” Mr Neil said.

“Now, with the agreement of the Amundsen family or society, we could run the Amundsen Prize next year and have it focused on [the] Antarctic and tie it in with the Mawson Hut people and a general focus on Antarctica in Hobart.
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Kobe Bryant, 13 time NBA All Star. Kobe Bryant, 4 time All Star MVP. That, my friends, is plenty of time spent on the court in an uniform as an All Star. No surprise really, we all know Kobe is and will be one of the greatest players in history to play the game of basketball. With so much experience as an All Star it would only make sense that Nike would create some of the most memorable Kobe Bryant shoes. Shoes made especially for the All Star games that he competed in. This past year saw several All Star game editions. There was a 3D pair, a red colorway representing the West team, and the “Orange County” colorway. The fourth colorway released during this past year’s event in Los Angeles might have been the best.

Dubbed the “East LA” edition, this shoe is one of the most unique Kobe VI’s we have ever seen. A scenic graphic of the Los Angeles skyline is intergrated into the deep blue color of the snakeskin textured upper. Wow!
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It is not often that such detail goes into a basketball shoe. Speaking of detail, the artwork on the heel cup resembles a tatoo. This tatoo style artwork is also seen on the insoles of the shoes. Red accents adorn the tongue and outsole as well the heel cup of the shoe. The Nike Swoosh appears to be missing from the upper. That’s because it is also a deep blue color and blends into the upper. Add a translucent outsole and you have got one of the coolest looking sneakers that Nike has ever created.

This special All Star game edition, like all of the Kobe VI’s, features the scale like snakeskin textured upper. An upper that many sneakerheads considered to be a gimmick when the shoe first released. Myself included. It turns out, this was no gimmick. This unique textured upper molds perfectly to the foot and is just part of the high performance elements that make up the Kobe VI. It has alway been a perfect upper to create some of the most mind blowing colorways a basketball shoe has ever seen. The “East LA” is just one of many unbelievablely unique colorways that Nike has used on the Kobe VI.

Nike shoes for basketball have dropped in the past is some pretty amazing models and styles. But, the colorways that they have dropped in the past, although amazing, don’t compare to the colorways the Kobe VI has been dropped in. For the last three years, the signature lines of Kobe Bryant shoes have left no colorway behind. Actually I hope they have left a few behind,
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I can’t wait to see the newest Kobe VI colorway.

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Despite the fact that class A operation is rather inefficient, generating lots of heat and requiring a large heatsink there are some compelling arguments in its favor. One of these is the absence of cross over distortion, making it a good starting point for designing an amplifier with nearly immeasurable distortion levels. The DIY amplifier presented here offers just that, and can be scaled up to 100 watts in 8 ohm, which should be enough for the majority of applications. So without further ado, lets take a closer look at the design of this amplifier and what it is capable of.

Generally speaking there are two methods for setting the output stage bias current of a transistor amplifier to guarantee sufficiently low distortion levels. One is “optimal class B”, a setting where the transconductance of the output devices at idle is the reciprocal of the degeneration resistors. At this bias setting, open loop output impedance and gain are maximally constant and distortion is the minimized. Amplifiers that use this approach are commonly referred to as “class AB” amplifiers. The other means of setting the bias current is class A. Here the output stage transistors are biased quite heavily, hence the bias current is substantially larger than with the optimized class B setting. With this setting both output transistors conduct unless the output current exceeds the bias current. An output stage can be said to be operating in class A until that point. When an amplifier is said to “be” class A, this merely means that under normal operating conditions it is not supposed to go into class B.

For this design a class A bias setting was preferred, for a number of reasons. First and foremost because there is no simple way to guarantee that an optimized class B will also maintain its optimum setting. Especially a quick modulation of the die temperature of the output transistors caused by a changing dynamic load will cause for the setting to shift. The effects of this shift will not immediately show up in harmonic distortion measurements, but will however clearly be visible in intermodulation distortion measurements. Secondly, although the distortion of an optimized class B can be kept low, it will consist mainly of higher harmonics, whereas class A has mainly 2nd or 3rd order harmonics. Finally there is the issue of PCB routing and layout. Since the power supply currents are not distorted, magnetic coupling between the rails and the input stage is less likely to elicit distortion, making it easier for the novice builder to design a circuit board.
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men timberland boots Abandoned Maine camp freezes quiet moment in history

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UNION, Maine Unless you’re right in front of the small unsuspecting camp on Fuller’s Island in the middle of Crawford Pond, you most likely could go a whole day on the small lake without knowing it existed.

Discovering the camp’s secluded presence is surprise No. 1.

The camp, built in 1910 according to Union town records, unleashes its second surprise when you dock your boat, trudge across the island’s thick foundation of dried pine needles and step inside.

It takes a while to gather stock of the whole scene: a chalkboard sign next to the door reads “Oct. 3, 1976, Great Day!! Mom,” an array of local newspapers stacked in the corner of the camp’s large front room date back to the 1980s, and dried tea bags lay in quahog shells next to empty mugs signs that this was most likely where a former owner spent their summer mornings.

It’s as if someone left the camp one morning with every intention to come back and just never did.

It’s an assumption the camp’s newest owners, local siblings Stephen Brooks, Mark Brooks and Julie Scaccia have held since they purchased the camp earlier this year. They’ve spent the last few months looking through a century’s worth of books, tools and other vintage items left behind.

“I wish we had more information. It would be cool to find a journal here. I was hoping we would find something like that,” Mark Brooks said. “It’s just bizarre.”

Camps in any other state might be called a lake house or a cottage, but in Maine, the term “camp” has come to mean a place owned for the purpose of getting away from the world for a moment as a summer or simply a weekend vacation spot.

The siblings have their own camps on the shores of Crawford Pond and had known the Fuller’s Island camp had been for sale for at least two years. But this spring, Stephen Brooks sought to track down the camp’s owner who was living in Utah with his family.

He wrote the former owner, Harold McComb, a handwritten letter expressing interest in purchasing the camp, not knowing if he would ever hear back. Two weeks later he received an email from McComb and realized he needed to bring his siblings on board so they could own the camp together. Within two hours of receiving the email, without ever stepping inside of the camp, the family and McComb had reached a purchase agreement.

When the family finally made it out to the camp, which is only accessible by boat, they were shocked by what they found. Aside from a tree that had done some damage to the roof, the camp was in good condition and packed with belongings of the previous tenants, who they knew very little about.

“I was kind of shocked because it was, ‘Oh my gosh, everything is still in here,'” Stephen Brooks said. “There’s still pictures, you know?”

The camp, which has no running water or electricity, hasn’t been lived in for nearly three years, but it looks like someone from a different decade could be returning home any minute because of the collection of vintage items compiled from previous inhabitants. The mint green kitchen cabinets are still filled with glassware and dishes. A medicine cabinet to the left of the sink holds first aid products long past their intended use by dates. Tucked inside one of the cabinets is a to do list, assigning different names with different tasks.

“Johnny get the water” and “Ellen cook breakfast” are mere words written in pencil, but the chart gives a glimpse into camp days that occurred decades ago.

All of the appliances including the stove and the refrigerator are gas powered, along with the ornate lamps hanging in the living room and the sole bedroom. Water for the camp has to be brought out to the island or obtained from the fresh water spring on a different island behind Fuller’s Island.

In the living room, a wooden ship figurehead that adorns the wall steals the eye. The figurehead, a woman with a bare chest and arms back,
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holds command over the camp. Below the figurehead, a large American flag folded and in mint condition waits to be strung up a pole or hung on a wall.

A pair of hockey skates were left out next to the couch, which, along with ice harvesting tools and a large woodstove suggest that this camp had visitors even in winter. On a table in the middle of the living room, old cameras, photos and birthday cards give a glimpse into the lives that were connected to this place.

Nearly every shelf and drawer in the camp is overflowing with every publication imaginable from nearly every decade since the early 1920s. Accompanying an impressive collection of National Geographic Magazines are Cosmopolitans from the 1950s, New Yorkers from the 1960s, Time and Life Magazines that run the entire 20th Century, and one issue of Fortune Magazine dating back to the 1930s, just to name a few.

In the back bedroom, shoes are still neatly tucked under the bed and drawers are full of extra sheets and linens. Old jackets hang from a rod in the corner and cosmetics of a different time dot the dressers below yet more archives of books and magazines.

Taken altogether, the items in the camp paint a picture of who has lived there. But the Brooks family hasn’t had much communication with the previous owner about details other than the sale of the camp. Stephen Brooks offered to let McComb take anything out of the camp that he wanted, but McComb declined.

The Bangor Daily News reached out this week to McComb, who at age 80 lives in St. George, Utah, with his sister. He confirmed he had every intention to go back to the camp one day, but one winter the snow was just too much at his home on the mainland in Union, and he took his sister up on the offer to move out west.

“Well, I’m 80 years old, and I can’t shovel snow anymore and the year I left there was 5 feet of snow, and I said, ‘That’s it,'” McComb said. “I love the weather [in Utah], but I miss that camp.”

McComb said he received the camp in the early 1970s as a gift from his friend Ellen Fuller, who built the camp and had utilized it during the summers until the 1960s. McComb, a Michigan native, came to Maine as a miner, working first in Jackman mining copper and ultimately moving to Union to mine nickel, he said.

Fuller and McComb had been close friends, and she offered to pass on the Crawford Pond camp for McComb and his wife to stay. McComb then established a home on 10 acres near Crawford Pond, religiously returning to the camp spring through fall each year trying only a few times to stay during the winter. With the camp lacking insulation, he never stayed a full winter on the island.

“We loved the peace and quiet and tranquility,” McComb said. “The geese would nest right in the front of the camp and the loons would nest around back. We just loved that.”

Just as the Brooks intend to keep the camp relatively as is with the vintage belongings intact when McComb moved into the camp, he kept most of what Fuller had in it. The collection of magazines and medicines belonged to Fuller, as did the boxes of rulers and pencil sharpeners, which McComb said she had because she was a school teacher in Syracuse, New York.

With McComb not having any children, the list of chores likely belonged to Fuller and her family. However, the figurehead depicting a topless woman is an addition to the camp made by McComb after he purchased it in Texas in the mid 1970s.

Despite being from away himself, McComb said he is glad to have sold the camp to a local family,
men timberland boots Abandoned Maine camp freezes quiet moment in history
given that he had no relatives who were interested in buying the camp.

After putting on a new roof this summer, the new owners intend to work on the camp until they have to take their boats out of the water this fall so it can be ready for next summer. The family is hoping to rent out the camp to folks who will enjoy the seclusion and who won’t mind the relics of summers’ past staying in the camp.

newborn timberland boots a small d’Appolito loudspeaker

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Loudspeakers come in all shapes in sizes, some too large to conveniently place in a normal living room others so small they’ll get lost if dropped into the couch. 5.1 channel and up. The ideal configuration for surround sound, especially if you keep in mind the requirements for DTS and Dolby Digital EX playback, is five, or more, similar loudspeakers with identical response curves and tonal balance. Because both DTS and Dolby Digital EX playback calls for full range loudspeakers on all channels, the sound stage and coherency of the reproduced recording will be much better if all loudspeakers are identical, supplemented by a subwoofer of course.

I wanted to use drivers that have low, or virtually no, internal damping in the cone material so as to end up with as much transparency and detail as possible. Aluminum is a material that certainly has these characteristics. the cone no longer operating as a whole at a set frequency, means that many aluminum drivers need steep filter curves to keep the cone breakup resonance peak out of the actual reproduction. >20kHz hence it isn’t much of a problem. With aluminum low and midrange drivers this however can be problematic if you want to use as few drivers as possible. For example a 17 cm, 6.5 inch, aluminum driver will have a peak at around 4 to 5kHz that’ll be hard to get rid of.

However for this loudspeaker I want to use as few drivers as possible, simply because I want to keep the number of drivers per loudspeaker to a minimum as to prevent phase shifting with five or more loudspeakers in a surround configuration, at various distances from the listener. This will result in some frequencies being cancelled out, and others amplified, more so than with a two way loudspeaker. So a two way loudspeaker it is. That leaves me with determining what drivers I’d like to use and the size of the cabinet. As mentioned I’d like something small, but not too small, as that will impact faithful reproduction. The subwoofer should only be used for frequencies below 60Hz, otherwise the main loudspeakers will sound too thin, missing the low end extension.

Because I’d like to use aluminum drivers for the low/midrange I’ll need a driver that has a resonance peak at a frequency that’s at least twice the crossover frequency of the filter. With a two way system the crossover frequency is usually around 2.5 to 3kHz, which means that the resonance peak of the low/midrange driver will need to be at more than 6kHz. Furthermore I mentioned I’d like a small loudspeaker which can also be used as a center speaker. Unfortunately the usual tweeter woofer, or inverted tweeter woofer (woofer tweeter) doesn’t lend itself well for a center speaker as the sound axis will be skewed due to the loudspeaker being used on it side rather than in a normal upright position.

Fortunately there’s a solution to that problem which is used on a large number of center loudspeakers and that’s using a d’ Appolito configuration. A d’Appolito configuration consists of two woofers and a tweeter in between, or rather a woofer tweeter woofer configuration. The d’Appolito configuration has a much wider off axis reproduction hence it is better suited for loudspeakers that’ll be used in either a vertical or horizontal orientation. The upside of all this is we’ll also get a boost in efficiency as two identical drivers will be used for the low/midrange and they’ll be able to handle a higher load. So we’ll use a d’Appolito configuration for all loudspeakers which will also make the soundstage much more coherent due to the much better off axis reproduction.
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timberland sandals mens About Bed Bugs

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Bedbugs could be a fairly significant issue and more recently bed bug infestations have been rising across the USA.

They are really some of the harder pests to take out fully. A key reason is there is no clear optimal approach for getting rid of them. Certain pesticides may be effective on a strain of bed bugs in Nevada but might not work when used on another infestation in Florida.

An additional reason why it difficult to eliminate bedbugs is that due to their tiny mass, it can be difficult to find the bed bugs within a property and get rid of each one entirely. Certain exterminators has gone so far as training puppies particularly for sniffing out and finding bedbugs since they do an improved job then people and many equipment. Dogs are able to locate bed bugs in areas that machinery will not work or humans cannot see.

Some bed bug infestation got so serious in New York City, a couple of stores were required to shut down because of customer safety and also for the employees. The shops were reopened after the bed bugs living in the store were removed entirely. There have also been reports of individuals staying at resorts when the were in New York that were bitten by bed bugs while they were sleeping.

Some may not know that bedbugs are little parasites that feed on human blood and also warm blooded pets in the home. The term “Don let the bedbugs bite” is not just something fictional and in reality is true.

Bedbugs most often wait close to beds or the couch to feed off of the people that use them. Although they can also live in numerous areas inside a house like carpet, curtains,
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the closet and other areas.

A thing many do not understand is how bed bugs get into their homes in the first place even though they keep their houses to be spotless and neat. A lot of times bed bugs get into a home for the reason that they got inside handbag, shoes or boots, luggage, and outfit. Whenever you get home they will get out and live there.

After they live inside a home and have their eggs,
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their numbers can begin multiplying dramatically and very quickly. An additional factor that makes that makes bed bugs are so tough is that they are able to live as much as a single year without having to feed on blood.

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13. Taana Pistol Stooge “Heartbeat Anarchy Cum Search And Destroy The Noize Like A Rolling Christmas (Baby Please Come Home) I Can Never Go Home Anymore And Anyway I Can t Stand Myself (When You Touch Me)”

14. “Jailhouse”

15. Millie Small “My Boy Lollipop”

16. Candi Staton “Victim”

17. Charley Patton “Mississippi Boll Weevil Blues”

18. The Shondells “Hanky Panky”

There! a pretty good and expansive top ten. Criteria for getting on the all time Top Ten for this week was the ability to provide me with the thrill of special like. like, all gushy fanlike, like. also, more than half were some sort of “free lunch” on first hearing or first liking, in that my liking ended up being “unexpected” somehow, especially if I disliked the song at first, or it denied expectations or (even better) came out of nowhere. And I didn t have to work my way towards it (at least not consciously), it wasn t like “learning to enjoy the taste of beer” or “deciding that Tiffany isn t so bad after all, in fact I like her.”

“Makin Love” sounds like a prototype of Eurodisco, though I m sure it was an imitation made in New Jersey (or somewhere). “I Wanna Be Your Man” is the one great Stones song you haven t heard. I drove a friend out of my room with it (in 1985). “Get Me To The World On Time” is a hard sound and a pure memory of what it was like (“it” being “punk rock” in 1967). There s this 1988 remake of “Love To Love You Baby” by Jackie Concepcion, not all that good, really, but at the end of the “Lovin Jackie” mix she says “That s it, touch me, harder, harder, ooo ah, mmm, oh how s that I m getting a headache.” When “96 Tears” first came out it upset me so much that I couldn t listen to it. Just now I listened to (“listened to”) “Hanky Panky” on the Cruisin 1966 LP and didn t notice it until, after it was over, Pat O Day said “move up to hanky panky” as his lead in to the “move up to Chrysler” commercial. I d rather hear “Crimson and Clover” because it s louder and maybe it s a better song. But “Hanky Panky” plays louder in my mind. I saw her walkin on down the line. Here I go, higher and higher. You re gonna cry.

Ramon Salcido combines several different genres into one (if he d written the murders instead of performing them he d probably be accused of laying it on thick, if not of overkill: “Isn t the slit throat a bit much (1) the jealous husband, (2) the crazed coworker, (3) the Ernie K. Doe admirer, (4) the Readers Poll participant, (5) bizarreness (the nearly severed head), (6) sex crime, (7) turn the lights out on the whole family, (8) social pressures plus requisite night of drinking, (9) Hey Joe (“I think I ll go down to sunny Mexico”), (10) one little girl survives, (11) metaphor (the trash heap), (12) the angry crowd outside the jail, (13) similar slaying is solved on the same day (accentuates pervasiveness of evil), (14) overshadows similar slaying that is solved on the same day (so this one s special), (15) hidden past (possible bigamy), (16) “he must be stupid,” (17) televised confession, (18) death of seamen due to exploding gun turret dominates national news and is passed over locally (so meaningless catastrophe with too many deaths and no plot development puts this one in bold relief), (19) nonurban community far from the terror and hardship of the city, (20) on the lam long enough for people to stay nervous but caught soon enough so no one has time to forget and no intervening “story” preempts this one, (21) relative tips off police.

In “I Wanna Dance Wit Choo (Doo Dat Dance)” by Disco Tex the Sex O Lettes, Tex yells out “Ol .” The only remarkable thing about this is that in its context it s utterly unremarkable. I m the first person to remark on it, I bet. Monti Rock III) is Puerto Rican, though he could just as easily be Italian, and his on record patter (platter patter) has the verve of used car commercials (which is a lot of verve) and the excitement of the guy who s always wanted to play Las Vegas and here he is getting his first chance ever doing the performer intros and it s a gas! “It s disco time, baby! The disco kid is back!” And now that he s labeled the thing as disco (which in 1975 is all you have to do to make it disco), the Sex O Lettes launch into the second hoariest vaudeville shtick ever (first hoary is “Shimmy With My Sister Kate”), then break into party noise plus instrumental vamp which happens to be the same vamp that underlies both the Stooges “1969” (1969) and the psychedelic part of the Byrds “Tribal Gathering” (1968) (a song that I call “Bambi Meets Godzilla” because it s proto Stooges in part and proto Crosby Stills Nash in other part), neither of which, from the sound of it, influenced Tex in the least (I bet and therefore assume that the vamp had a long career as some Afro Caribbean clich before Disco Stooge the Dylanettes got hold of it). E A B; except in “Louie Louie” it s B minor) of European music, and of course those chords were used in some blues progressions; but, in my non extensive and not always knowledgeable listening of the world s music, the pattern done this way climbing up the chords I IV V or up and down I IV V IV I real quick in one or two measures appears only in Latin music (Cuban music and offshoots such as salsa) until the early 60s when the Wailers (the punks, not the Jamaicans), the Kingsmen, Paul Revere and the Raiders, and then Dylan, the Kinks, the Troggs, and a million others used it. In a class I took on the history of salsa, the teacher John Santos wondered aloud why Ray Barretto s “El Watusi” became such a big hit, since it was no more than a commonplace vamp, kind of a throwaway thing. I pointed out that the vamp was practically the “Louie Louie” progression and hit at more or less the same time as the Kingsmen s version. (Neither of us knew which hit first do any of you (Was the recorder on “Wild Thing” inspired by the flute on all those Latin hits (Leslie says that it wasn t a recorder, it was an ocarina, which sounds like a recorder but looks like a football.) Not that this has lots to do with Stooges or Disco Tex genealogy isn t important, only what you do with it. The importance of “musical heritage” is that it gives you a form to start with. You have to start somewhere. Though I think that blues and mambo (etc.) blues, anyway deserve more of the blame for punk rock (Stooges et al.) than they ve been given credit for you know, it s no accident when a form or content (same dif) gets easily turned into a churning, inviting death trip.)

Forthcoming from Geffen: Various Artists, Hello, This Is Your Mother, subtitled “messages your parents left on the phone machine” This is a recording unlike any other in show biz history, consisting as it does of performances only by the parents of rock stars. glam metal band. Geffen has asked us not to release the names of the participants “until all the details are worked out” WMS thinks they re just trying to build suspense. Well, the big names are on here, and the advance cassette has been raging 18 hours a day nonstop here at the Why Mildred Skis offices. And you thought the Sex Pistols were intense! Features the soon to be classic “The Music On Your Machine Is Shit,” “We Haven t Heard From You In Two Months,” “It s Your Sister s Birthday On Friday,” “Why Weren t You At Aunt Jessica s Funeral “To Hell With It, I Keep Calling And Calling And What Good Does It Do Me!” “We ve All Been Wondering Why We Haven t Heard From You. Are You On Another Tour and many more.

In New York in the 1930s a Jew named Alfred Mendelsohn changed his name to Alfredo Mendez and formed a Latin band.

So when Tex (singing in Spanish) and his fellow revelers finish with the Stooges vamp, this wailing voice comes in with this entirely wonderful doowop or proto Beach Boys (I m the proud owner of zero Beach Boys records) falsetto “I wanna rock n roll with you,” Tex does his famous “Ol ,” and probably a lot more happens but the version I ve got is on a K Tel sampler so it fades out here after only two minutes.

Probably killing people was the least interesting thing Charley Starkweather did. Not that I know if he ever did anything interesting. No one can be totally boring. Ramon Salcido may or may not be interesting; his murders are just comic relief. (I mean, in the life of the wiseass urban dweller. It wasn t comic relief to those directly affected.) Maybe for some teenager they re a lot cooler. That s more interesting than Starkweather himself, probably. Possibly.

Though if Michael Jackson formed a group called Rapeman, I doubt that anyone would call it the lamest of punk jokes:
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timberland style boots A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf

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Reference: Williams, S., Hume, P. A. and Kara, S., 2012. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf. Sports Medicine, 41 (11), pp. 903 923.

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Abstract Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords ‘artificial turf’,
timberland style boots A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf
‘natural turf’, ‘grass’ and ‘inj’. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and rotational stiffness properties of shoe surface interfaces, decreased impact attenuation properties of surfaces, differing foot loading patterns and detrimental physiological responses. Changing between surfaces may be a precursor for injury in soccer. In conclusion, studies have provided strong evidence for comparable rates of injury between new generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. An exception is the likely increased risk of ankle injury on third and fourth generation artificial turfs. Therefore, ankle injury prevention strategies must be a priority for athletes who play on artificial turf regularly.
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Let me start with the opera, Sea of Blood. Yes, it is ominously named and deliberately so.

Here’s the plot: Japan has occupied North Korea. A poor tenant farmer named Yun Seop joins others to fight the invaders. All are soon killed, but Yun Seop’s wife raises an army of resistance and defeats the might of the Japanese forces.

Sea of Blood is revered in North Korea as the perfect representation of Korean spirit.

The opera was adapted from the play Blood Sea, written by North Korea’s founding father Kim Il sung.

It is the artistic representation of what North Koreans call “juche”.

You cannot possibly understand North Korea without grasping juche it is the key to the hermit kingdom.

The North Korean regime used music to deliver this philosophy to the masses.

In a thesis for the University of Pretoria, Kisoo Cho looked at how the revolutionary opera became the embodiment of this idea.

“It is no exaggeration to say that all the arias and songs performed in the opera contain political messages,” Mr Cho wrote.

Indeed, Kim Jong il who inherited power from his father said: “Music must work for politics and music without politics is the same as flowers without scent.”Korean scholar Hyun Joo Lee studied the transformation of North Korean music and drew a direct link to Hegel’s ideas of history.

“North Korean music cannot break the bounds of Hegel’s philosophy,” she wrote.

Hegel is many things to many people.

He is widely considered the philosopher most difficult to read, yet his ideas continue to resonate.

Is North Korea ‘unpredictable’? Analysts and officials have described North Korea as “unpredictable”,
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but Stan Grant writes that the Kim regime is anything but.

American political scientist Francis Fukuyama famously drew on Hegel at the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet empire to ask if the world was witnessing the end of history.

Hegel believed that history would deliver us to the “absolute moment”.

For Hegel, world history was driven by the battle of ideas.

Dr Fukuyama believed the absolute moment was the triumph of Western liberal democracy over communism in the late 1980s.

This was history’s zenith; the superior idea had won, history was at an end.

It was ironic because the father of communism, Karl Marx, was also a Hegelian.

Marx saw Hegel’s concept of history a beginning, a middle, and an end as culminating in the “workers’ paradise”, with the proletariat having overthrown the capitalist bourgeoisie.

As one communist regime after another fell, North Korea remained in the secretive capital Pyongyang,
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Dr Fukuyama’s history did not prevail.

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For nine years I have been funding the construction of schools in Afghanistan, and I travel there every year to monitor their implementation. I operate in the province of Bamiyan, in the highlands of the Hindu Kush, the so called Valley of the Buddha, named after those statues which were destroyed by the Taliban in March 2001. The population, ethnic Hazara and Shi suffered the Taliban fanaticism more than any other group, seeing entire villages destroyed and suffering mass executions.

Perhaps this is why the region has remained impervious to Taliban resurgence until today. This has enabled me to work quietly and steadily and be part of a process of development that is beginning to show visible results. Since 2004, when I came to Bamiyan for the first time, thanks to the opportunity presented to me and my wife Maria Rosario by Filippo Grandi, then director of the UNHCR (UN High Commissioner for Refugees) in Afghanistan, our small organization, Committee Arghosha Faraway Schools, has made great progress. Named in 2005 after the first school built in the remote valley of Arghosha, at a height of 3200 metres and 30 km north of the legendary lakes of Band e Amir, our association, in addition to myself and Filippo, includes my wife and her brother, Paolo Lazzati. In nine years, we have funded the construction of 8 schools, (with the ninth coming this autumn), three courses of professional training for 300 teachers, three courses of computer use and English for 30 neo graduate girls, and built a library in the biggest of the schools, Chardeh, which houses over 700 girls.

Our projects focus on the female population, as out of 3,500 students attending the schools, 2,500 are girls, 4 of the 9 schools that we built are for girls only (the others are mixed), while of the 120 teachers on the Afghan state payroll teaching in our schools, 30 are women, a very high level by the standards of Afghans. Shuhada, the Afghan NGO that plans and and builds the schools that we fund, was also founded by a woman, Sima Samar, now chairman of the National Commission of Human Rights in Afghanistan and, in the past, vice president of the first Karzai government. Our other tutelary female is Habiba Sarabi, Governor of Bamiyan, the only woman governor of an Afghan province. Sarabi is a big supporter: on April 13th, despite the commitments between Kabul and Bamiyan, she came to attend the inauguration of our eighth school in Dar and Ali, on a rainy but cheerful day for the more than 350 pupils who will go on to study in a stone structure replacing an old one made of mud.

This year I decided to prolong my stay in Afghanistan in order to understand the impact of our commitment to education during all these years of operations in this wonderful country. In fact, I had second thoughts, since the media and experts continue to bombard us with negative messages about the future of the country, in view of the withdrawal of foreign troops. Did we throw our money into the furnace? I owed an answer to our donors, given that in all these years we have raised and spent $ 1.1 million. And I owed it to the Afghans: in fact we have involved about 20,000 people, mostly farmers and shepherds, sending their 3,500 children to school every day. Instead of spending the usual week in the country, coinciding with the opening of a new school, this time I took a month’s vacation to travel to the four corners of Bamiyan province, visiting all the schools. I travelled over 1,600 km (1,000 miles) by car on rough roads, between 2500 and 3500 metres above sea level, I flew over the valleys of the Hindu Kush by plane and helicopter, looking over crops and recently built homes. I met the principal representatives of the province: Governor Sarabi, the mayor of Bamiyan, Khadim Hussain Fitrat, the dean of Bamiyan University, Sakhidad Saleem, local journalists and managers of various departments, from Economy, Labour and Tourism/Culture. I also met our Ambassador in Kabul, Luciano Pezzotti, since Italy has various cultural projects and cooperation in Bamiyan, from the restoration of the Buddha, to that of the ruins of the citadel of Gholghola, and including some road works.

After much wandering I am convinced that despite the doubts and uncertainties, the province of Bamiyan is moving in the right direction and that the money we spent was the best investment of our lives. The welfare of the inhabitants of the valleys continues to improve, though slowly. Agriculture in the wealthiest areas begins to mechanize, replacing wooden ploughs with tractors. All around you can see new fruit trees and masonry structures to store potatoes, known throughout Afghanistan for their top quality. Over the last 5 years in Bamiyan 3 banks have established branches, and half a dozen hotels have been built, with the aim of attracting what is still a weak flow of tourists, mostly Afghans. The herds and flocks grow visibly. Many people have a Chinese or Iranian motorcycle. It is now rare to encounter barefoot children in the villages, while 10 years ago they were the majority. All adults have good quality shoes. In many schools girls in the higher grades, who once covered their eyes and lowered their gaze, now still keep their heads covered, but look you straight in the eye and ask questions directly. In one particular school, Zarin, the girls have made it clear that they have no problem with going away to study in large cities such as Kabul, Mazar, Herat or even Kandahar, which is ridden with Taliban infiltration. The majority of students want to become doctors or teachers and even much needed engineers: you often hear children shouting in chorus “inginaar”, a term which for them has to do with everything that is modern, from engines and bridges to canals in the fields. The girls have raised their head in recent years, and although soberly, they now take care of their appearance, sporting stylish shoes and handbags, even if they have to walk for more than an hour on rocky paths to reach a destination over 3,000 metres above sea level. Infant mortality has been reduced drastically by virtue of the construction of polyclinics. According to data from Mohammed Reza Ada, director of the provincial Department of Education, 85 schools were built in the last 7 years, also thanks to our small contribution. A total of 353 are now operational, with 142,000 students attending, compared with 82,000 in 2005. Moreover, girls rose from 39% to 46% of all pupils. Today, in many areas, the female component has reached a majority.

As a sorcerer’s apprentice who embarked on an experiment both for fun and out of curiosity, to discover the unexpected effect of his actions, I realized the powerful impact that education has on people’s lives. First, there is a concrete and visible result: about a mile south of Arghosha, our first school, a dam has been built to manage the valley water supply, while a mile further north, a clinic has been built by the New Zealand military (PRT), drastically reducing mortality at childbirth. The same happened in Kamati, a school at the foot of the highest Hindu Kush mountain, the Koh e Baba, where a clinic was built a year ago by the Swiss NGO Help Schaffausen and a system of canals is now in place. In Chardeh, which is next to a school for 1800 boys, there is a large outpatient clinic built by US Aid and even a bazaar, which has flourished in recent years. In Sar and Qul, a bridge was built two years ago over a stream which the girls had had to wade through for the previous three years. A clinic was also built a couple of years ago. Zarin, Sar and Qul have also attracted large NGOs such as Save the Children: The Japanese division of the famous organization has in fact built the walls surrounding the buildings.

We are a small organisation, but nonetheless we have moved in the right direction at the right time, especially with the right people operating in the field. In some instances, we were even able to lead the way for big charitable organizations. And our activity is proving successful. Just before leaving the country I was able to lay the foundation stone of our ninth school, Ghorab, in a moving ceremony for the students and residents of the valley. The school completes a structure built years ago by Care International that was no longer big enough to accommodate the growing number of students, who were forced to study in tents.

Our small size has allowed us to be more flexible than others, maintaining at the same time a tight control over everything we do. We are also in continuous contact with our Afghan operators who are by now old friends. From them we demand absolute honesty and transparency. So far there has been no need from our side of any sort of guidance on that matter, judging from some anecdotes like that of a truck carrying bricks that 5 years ago shed its load on the way to the building site, which I only found out now, since they have never asked for a refund and were ashamed to talk about it. Or the rigour that Shuhada has shown, when some farmers in a valley wanted to sell the land where the school was to be built instead of donating it, as all villagers do. Our local correspondents suggested that we hold on, threatening to go to another valley to build the school. That was a very effective threat and finally we got what we wanted.

My long journey into the centre of Afghanistan has convinced me that for us the crucial year 2014 will be a year like any other. The building of our tenth school will symbolically celebrate the tenth year of our presence in the country. We will continue to work as long as our Afghan friends ask us and our donors allow it. The best antidote to those who destroy is to build. Of stones in Afghanistan there are plenty, and we won leave any stone unturned.
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It is necessary to evaluate the track shoes in our life. Here we must realize that the shoes are suitable for the people who are outdoors. Actually, the rubber called Stealth in the shoes is especially significant. The shoes made by FIVE TEN Company are very famous in the world. Many famous sportsmen in the world choose the products of this company. In fact, the remarkable function of shoes mainly lies on the unique rubber called Stealth.

We must pay attention to one point. One of its important feature is the strong friction. According to the trials, we know that this kind of rubber’s friction is better than other materials. If you like climbing mountains, you had better choose this kind of shoes. The Vibram is often used in other running shoes. This kind of rubber is not so good as Stealth. As the time goes, the Vibram’s friction may lose. However, the Stealth will not change. This kind of shoes is very suitable, so a lot of sportsmen are willing to wear the shoes made of Stealth.

As we know, this kind of rubber’s friction is best in the world. Actually, nothing can be equal with this kind of rubber. However, it does not sell well in the market. In the world, there are many good corporations which use this kind of rubber to make shoes. They are Vasque, Five Ten, LL Bean and Chaco. Moreover, the sandals made by Chaco are very good and famous. We can not ignore the mark of Stealth. The mark of the Stealth is designed a silly cat. The cat is not lovely. Therefore, the products of Stealth are not as popular as Vibram’s. In addition, according to different purposes, the Stealth is divided into 5 categories. Different categories have different colors and marks. These categories are easy to differentiate. First, let us see red Stealth. This kind of Stealth is suitable to those who walk on the rocks. The friction of red Stealth is very strong. The yellow Stealth is a little soft. Its friction is also good. Moreover, this kind of rubber’s cushioning is also very excellent. We can not ignore this significant feature. We have to mention orange rubber. It is said that the orange Stealth has best friction. So it is especially suitable to rock climbing. If you want to climb mountains, you must choose orange Stealth. Actually, you can choose blue Stealth when you walk on the damp humid and smooth rock. At this time, you need not be afraid of the rushing water at all. The last one is dark green Stealth. The dark green Stealth is very rough. It is said that it is suitable to snowy ground. The running shoes are produced by Five Ten Corporation. The shoes apply for the XCR water proof material and Stealth rubber.

The shoes are very beautiful. The shoelaces of shoes are beautiful as neckties. We can find the shoes on the internet and some people sell them. So someone is interested in the shoes and decides to buy one pair. The shoes are so good that many people give good evaluation. A lot of customers choose this kind of shoes.
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Maybe the conversation began when America learned that Trayvon Martin, an unarmed 17 year old African American walking home with a bag of Skittles was killed in a confrontation with a wannabe cop in Florida in 2012. Then came the killing of 18 year old Michael Brown, also African American, in Ferguson, Mo., by a white police officer. Then outrage over the death of Eric Garner, 43, while being wrestled to the ground by police in Staten Island. And the police bullet that killed Tamir Rice in Ohio. He was 12 years old. And another that killed John Crawford II, a 22 year old walking through an Ohio Walmart with an air rifle he picked up in the store. These violent confrontations resulting in acquittals

or no indictments are prompting a conversation across the nation and here in the Buffalo area, where African Americans are arrested at more than three times the rate of whites and “driving while black” is perceived as an unofficial crime.

From church pews to college classrooms, from City Hall speeches to street protests, people wonder what’s going on. Why these killings of African Americans by white police officers?

Are these questions and protests a passing phase? Or at a time when “I Can’t Breathe” and “Black Lives Matter” are rallying cries is this a pivotal moment that will lead to a new relationship between police and minority communities?

“I don’t think there’s a single police officer that goes out on any given day and says, ‘Today, I’m going to kill somebody,'” said Martin Forero, a retired Buffalo cop who worked much of his career on Buffalo’s East Side. “In fact, most police officers pray they never have to do that in their entire career.”

But Paul Perez, 24, one of the protestors at a Buffalo demonstration, said the recent events are a turning point.

“I don’t know what it is,” he said. “I don’t know how it will turn out, but I think we are moving toward something.”

Perhaps. But for now, it’s at least a conversation often between people with differing views on everything from police tactics to race relations. Here is where the conversation continues:

Many blacks historically don’t trust police.

Over on Box Avenue on the city’s East Side, 83 year old Andrew Johnson said he recalls walking near his home in Buffalo in the 1950s, when a white police officer stopped him for no apparent reason.

“Hey , come here,” the officer said, using the N word.

His son Kevin, now 55, remembers in the late 1960s, when he and his brother were 8 and 9 years old, racing to a store around the corner to get a loaf of bread for their mother.

“A police officer stopped us, pulled a gun and said ‘Take another step and I’ll shoot,'” Kevin Johnson recalled. “We were terrified.”

“The officer said there was a shooting on East Ferry Street, and we fit the description of the shooter,” he recalled the officer saying before he let the boys go.

Last summer, Kevin Johnson said, he walked to the deli one evening when an officer motioned him to come out of the store and said: “Didn’t I tell you not to be here, to stay off this corner?”

Johnson said he didn’t know what the officer was talking about. The officer had mistaken him for someone else, who was apparently suspected of selling marijuana on the corner.

“He was harassing me,” said Johnson, a longtime restaurant cook.

“Nothing has changed,” his father said.

The death of Garner in Staten Island, he said, “that was the most blatant killing. That was murder. And for a grand jury to allow that to happen. It makes you feel like if it happened to me, what would happen?”

Alice Johnson, 80, Kevin’s mother and Andrew’s wife, worries about where things are headed.

“Young people today are not going to put up with what we used to put up with,” she said.

The view on the street looks a lot different for officers on the beat.

“Step into our shoes for a while,” said one retired Buffalo police officer. “When you go to work, you may not come home at the end of the night.”

Sometimes officers don’t make it home.

Across the country last year, 27 law enforcement officers were killed in felony attacks, according to the FBI. Of those known alleged police killers, 15 were white and 11 were black.

In Buffalo, Officer Patricia Parete was shot and paralyzed in 2006 while investigating a reported fight at the corner of Chippewa Street and Elmwood Avenue. She died last year at age 48. The shooter was a black man.

Officer Charles “Skip” McDougald, a black policeman, was shot and killed in 1997 by a young black man he attempted to stop on Northampton Street to ask about a car that was reportedly stripped and abandoned one block away. McDougald was 36.

Buffalo police also mourned the death of Officer Robert J. McLellan, 35, who was killed in 1998 when struck by a motorist while chasing a fugitive who fled across Kensington Expressway.

“We’ve heard mention of racial trends, the reality is, when you are in a life or death situation, no one is thinking about black or white, the officer is trying to stay alive,” said Thomas H. Burton, a local defense lawyer who represents police involved in deadly force cases.
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In learning about Gallipoli and the Anzacs, many students are making poppies, discovering the origins of Anzac biscuits and researching the lives of local WWI soldiers, while many schools will hold a ceremony for Anzac Day. You too can get in the spirit of the commemorations with these ten great s for teachers, parents and students: 1. Gallipoli: The First Day This interactive website allows children to experience what it was like for Australian soldiers to land at Gallipoli on the first day. It includes a 3D map space, a campaign overview and profiles of soldiers from both the Australian and Turkish sides. 2. Australian War Memorial website A comprehensive starting point to learn more about Gallipoli and Anzac Day. There’s a range of materials including personal stories and excerpts from diaries and letters written by Anzac soldiers. 3. Department of Veterans’ Affairs website Find information about local events across Australia that mark the Anzac Centenary. There’s also a fascinating section titled Great War Memories that shares anecdotes from the First World War, including perspectives from those at home. 4. Splash’s Topic on the ANZACs A rich collection of s, digibooks, audio clips and links from many different sources, including ABC News and the Australian War Memorial. There are also short films about the importance of the bugle call and the meaning of Anzac Day. 5. An Anzac Tale, by Greg Holfeld A graphic novel with the main characters portrayed as Australian animals. Striking illustrations tell the story of young Australians who were part of the Gallipoli landing. 6. A is for Anzac, by Matt Anderson The book uses each letter of the alphabet to mark a or theme related to Anzac Day. Check out this online adaptation. 7. An introduction to ANZAC DAY for early childhood An engaging Anzac Day themed website for younger children. It provides fun, hands on activities and games while weaving in facts about Australia’s involvement in the First World War and other conflicts. 8. Anzac Ted, by Belinda Landsberry (for younger children) A tale of a much loved and worn teddy, passed to a boy by his grandfather who served in the First World War. The book is a gentle way to share the importance of Anzac Day with younger children. 9. Remembering Them App Planning to travel over the school break and want to include some historic stops? The free app will provide a list of memorials, museums, war graves and other Australian sites that commemorate wartime history. 10. Anzac Centenary Poster Competition Keep children busy and engaged over the holidays by designing a poster to commemorate the Anzac Centenary. Draw or use arts and crafts. Roll of Honour The Australian War Memorial in Canberra is calling for schools to be part of the Roll of Honour Soundscape project. Students aged 10 12 make recordings in which they state the name and age (if known) of Australians who died in service during World War I. Visitors to the Memorial can then hear the recordings in the commemorative area. Year 6 students at Mount Pritchard Public School, NSW, made recordings last year using the project’s online app. Assistant principal Courtney Knight recommended the project to other schools as a way to make history come alive for students. “For our kids, it made that part of Australian history more relevant,” Mrs Knight said. “It really allowed them to make a connection, especially when they read out the age of the person. It wasn’t just a name on a page; it made it more real for them,” she said. Mrs Knight said some students were motivated to undertake their own research about the First World War, after being involved in the project. “It gives children the opportunity to become part of Australian history,” she added. The online app, Remember Me, is easy to use. There’s even an online tutorial available, which shows teachers and students exactly how it’s done. Australian War Memorial Centenary of Anzac project manager Darren Noack said about 7,800 recordings have been made so far. The recordings will heard at the War Memorial until Remembrance Day 2018 and will be held in the Memorial files after that. ABC Splash ANZAC Topic Page We’ve curated a selection of clips from the Splash Library and from across the ABC all mapped to the Australian Curriculum, including these clips on The Last Post andThe meaning of ANZAC Day. Gallipoli The First Day: Interactive documentary site Get your students to immerse themselves in the first day landings at Gallipoli in 1914. An extensive that explores Australian and Turkish perspectives on the ‘day that shaped a nation’. Australian War Memorial Education Resources A great collection of practical activities and primary s for use in the classroom as well as this collectionof s exploring multiculturalism in the AIF. M is for Mates: Animals in Wartime Did you know animals could be awarded a medal for bravery in war? Ideal for younger students learning about different aspects of war, this publication by the Department of Veterans’ Affairs takes a different, often uplifting, take on life on the frontline. Andrew Denton’s Brothers In Arms This clip invites older students to contemplate the many different ways the past is remembered and commemorated. An excellent introduction to the way documentary can contribute to the historical record. Photographer: CPL Melina Mancuso

WW1: Fromelles and Pozieres ABC and Department of Veterans’ Affairs In World War I, the battles of Fromelles and Pozieres were the first major engagements for Australian troops on the Western Front and their first experience of trench warfare. This website and the associated apps for iOS and Android tell the stories of the two battles and contain a wealth of original source information such as maps, soldiers diaries, and archive photographs as well original interviews putting the events into historical context. Learn more about this critical period of ANZAC history with WWI: Fromelles and Pozieres.
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Those shoes that you just can’t live without, that you use for working out, doing yard work, walking, running or just hanging out the sneaker has a fascinating history.

The sneaker has been around since the 1800s when the Industrial Revolution took hold on America and rubber began being produced. Sneakers were once called plimsolls when they were first made in the 1800s as a plain rubber soled shoe. Goodyear, now a tire manufacturer, began as a rubber shoe company and in 1892 introduced Keds to the world. The word “sneaker” was also introduced to the world about a decade later when an advertising agent gave these rubber soled shoes the name sneakers because the soles were so quiet and didn’t make any noise on any surface.

Converse was the next company to release a sneaker to the world in 1917. They called it the Converse All Star and it was the shoe worn by basketball players. This shoe the Converse All Star later became the Chuck Taylor All Star and became a necessity to basketball players, kids and others for more than 50 years.

Adi and Rudolph Dassler introduced the first shoe used for tennis, or the tennis shoe, in 1931 and the brand name Adidas was born. Soon after Rudolph Dassler teamed with Puma Schuhfabrik to produce the Puma brand shoe for football.

It took until the 1950s for sneakers to be the preferred footwear of teenagers after James Dean was photographed wearing his jeans and white sneakers. Girls and boys wore their sneakers as a symbol of rebellion.

In 1968 the sneaker giant Nike enters the sneaker scene after Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman partner to create Blue Ribbon Sports shoes which was later changed to Nike after the Greek Goddess of Victory. In 1971 the famous Nike swoosh was bought from a graphic design student for a mere $35! In 1979 Nike created the first Nike Air sole shoe claiming a revolutionary air cushioning shoe. They introduce the first shoe using this technology called the Nike Tailwind. However, one of the most memorable shoe lines that Nike released was the Air Jordan which hit the markets in 1985.

Since then Nike has captured the athletic shoe market. In 2001 they introduced their Nike Shox advanced support technology. This system uses columns of engineered foam to give runners and athletes superior cushioning and support. This was a new revolution in shoe design.

Nike continued to lead the market in 2003 and acquired Converse, Inc. The Chuck Taylor All Star is reintroduced and is again a fashion staple in the lives of teenagers across the country.

Sneakers have come so far that they are not strictly for athletes anymore. In 2004 Reebok formed a partnership with music professionals to create their Sound and Rhythm line. This was done on an attempt to grow and heighten sales and to recognize the growing popularity of the music industry and it’s effect on today’s youth.

Whether you are a professional athlete, casual athlete, music enthusiast or lover of fashion only, there is sure to be several pairs of sneakers in your wardrobe to fit every facet of your life. But did you ever know that this staple item had such an interesting history behind it?

People interested in the above article are also interested in the related articles listed below:

5 Best Countries You Can Migrate To

Did you know that the number of international migrants reached 244 million in 2015,
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After One Year In Temporary Shelter, Families Hope To Rebuild Their Homes

Small clusters of temporary shelters made of zinc sheets dot the hills of Bhaktapur district. In the hot and sunny April, the glare of the metal strikes you from a long distance. Over half a million houses, mostly in Nepal’s rural areas, were completely destroyed or heavily damaged last year. Navaraj Bishwakarma’s and Kanchhi Tamang’s houses were among those. government), the terrorist group and Iranian proxy force, and Hamas, rulers of the Gaza strip and practioneers of terrorism. America must take this into account as it pressures Iran to stop its nuclear activities and considers responses to recent North Korean actions,

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Airwalk skate shoes Airwalk skate shoes specialize in board sports and are highly praised for it. Bill Mann and George Yohn established the Airwalk in 1986. During this time they worked on skate shirts, boards, and other products and sponsored many professional skaters such as Tony hawk and Jason Lee. Soon after Mann deserted the company and left it with Yohn to take care of there was a decision made to go mainstream but not many people did not like that idea and were questionable about the designs. In 2004 they went back to action and a sport since that was more of strength and brought up past designs to try and see what people would like they purchased many different companies and grew capable of doing more things but they decided to stick with youth board sports. Now they have grown all over the world helping tons of young skaters get the comfort they need and the fun they want.

Today they are carrying casual and sport shoes from sandals to specially designed mountain biking shoes. They also carry thing such as T shirts, sweat shirts and other accessories for an everyday person.

Airwalk skate shoes are very comfortable with a soft inside but long lasting and dependable you would be glad to spend your money on this worth while product and even the other accessories would be worth it. They offer the comfort you want in everyday life, and you can even find some that offer the support you need for your exercise walking or running routines. For a more entertaining exercise you can use the Airwalk skate shoes to skate down the road, you find that time flys and you still look like you in great shape.

Even Europe is rushing for the nice sensation of this awesome footwear. They are found in many Payless and Modells in the world. Like they once were these survivors are thriving once again. When you look at the people shoes you can always find several who are gliding or walking in the amazingly comfortable Airwalk skate shoes.

When you decide to buy Airwalk skate shoes you want to be sure that they fit. Keep in mind that if you actually go to the store you need to try them on because even if that is your size in one style of shoe, it doesn mean that it is for the Airwalk skate shoes. If you decide to buy online and have them shipped to your house, you need to look and find what their return and trade policies are on the shoes. If they don allow it then they are probably not a good place to buy from because you will be stuck with whatever you buy whether they fit comfortably or not. If they do allow it,
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People interested in the above article are also interested in the related articles listed below:

Journey Into Buying Running Gear

When you are interested in trying a new sport what is the first thing you do? I know I look for the gear to go with the sport. That is why when I was challenged to take part in a five kilometer race in November I started to seek out advice on the running gear I would need. Right off the bat I found the two essential things I would come to need were a supportive bra and the right pair of shoes.

Get Your Body In Perfect Running Form

How do you know when you are running with correct form? If you are new to the sport this question can be a bit tricky. As with any sport it is good to get advice from a professional so that you can be sure you are getting into good habits off the bat. It is harder to correct bad habits after they have been formed so it is important to get advice on running form right from the start.

How To Get The Low Cost Sports Sneakers For All Ages

One of the best items of apparels and clothing is shoes. Although the shoes are mainly considered as accessories, there is no outfit that would be considered complete and yet there is no appropriate shoe. With the various kinds of climate conditions and even different uses of the shoes, there are specific footwear for all these situations.

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timberland anti fatigue A visual journey inside the crafting of the Air Jordan XXXII

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From Italy to Oregon: A visual journey inside the Air Jordan XXXII

The Air Jordan XXXII will be available in the familiar black and red of the Chicago Bulls on Oct. 18 the anniversary of the preseason game when Michael Jordan first wore the Air Jordan I that would be banned by the NBA. Courtesy NikeFacebookTwitterFacebook MessengerEmailcommentOct 18, 2017Nick DePaulaESPN

FacebookTwitterFacebook MessengerPinterestEmailprintcommentTURIN, ITALY, is not a basketball town. At least not how New York, Los Angeles or even Beaverton, Oregon, is.

But when Nike was looking to unveil the Air Jordan XXXII, the newest model in Michael Jordan’s long running signature line, it chose Turin for the setting. The city and its history inspired many of the design elements that made their way into the final shoe the famed “Bred” colorway, which will be released Oct. 18.

This is how the Air Jordan XXXII came to life.

The Original: Air Jordan IIPhoto by Nathaniel S. Butler/NBAE via Getty ImagesIt has been 14 years since Michael Jordan last graced an NBA court, and more than 30 since this soaring, contorting capture of His Airness was photographed in Seattle during All Star Weekend, but the brand’s namesake still serves as the foundational inspiration for every Air Jordan model.

“We want to own that idea of our heritage and our DNA,” said David Creech, Jordan Brand creative director and vice president of design. “When we think of these iconic photos of MJ, they embodied the concept of flight.”

The Crafting: Made In ItalyCourtesy Jordan BrandWhen the shoe first launched during the late 1980s, the Air Jordan II was unlike anything on the market. There was a faux iguana texture along the main panel, a more tasteful approach to branding with the “Wings” logo atop the tongue and some built in mystique for the shoe with its “Made in Italy” backstory. All of those details and the shoe’s then lofty $100 price point helped establish it as not only a premium basketball shoe but also a crossover lifestyle product in America. Three decades later, the shoe has also inspired the brand’s newest flagship silhouette.

“We wanted to capture the essence of how the AJ II was crafted 30 years ago,” Creech said. “Things like Italian craft, and the elevated and premium materials that happen here in Italy. When they crafted that shoe 30 years ago, they really created the first luxury basketball shoe.”

The Setting: TurinNick DePaula/ESPNTurin is a sleepier town than tourist heavy locales like Milan, Florence and Rome, and for Tate Kuerbis, the senior designer behind the Air Jordan XXXII, the city served as a showcase of its endless landmarks and statues, rich and detailed cafes, and noted tailors and craftsmen.

“We looked into a lot of beautifully made Italian products and tried to really capture that,” Kuerbis said. “If you look at how the leather is stitched from the inside on the collar, or how the liner is attached, we really wanted to emphasize that the shoe feels hand stitched and hand crafted.”

The Museum: Museo Nazionale dell’AutomibileNick DePaula/ESPNTurin is home to the Museo Nazionale dell’Automibile, which has long served as the preeminent showcase of vintage Ferraris, dating back to several of Formula 1’s most iconic winning models.

For Kuerbis, the construction techniques and finishing edges helped inform how the XXXII could come to life. “You could see the engine, but the way they disguise it, it’s kind of hidden,” he said. “You go and look at the detailing of the leathers and they are beautiful the stitching at the seams, the piping, the color pops. The blend of having this high performance car, but it’s done in such a beautiful, restricted elegance way it’s really amazing.”

The Inspiration: FerrariNick DePaula/ESPNNot only has the long heralded lineage of Ferrari been admired by Jordan Brand for its design and performance, but it also has been Michael Jordan’s car of choice since he entered the league. He adorned his earliest Ferraris with custom license plates reading “UNC 23” or “M AIR J.”

The last shoe he wore as a Chicago Bull, the Air Jordan XIV, was heavily influenced by the Ferrari 550M. Years later, he’s still switching in and out of the latest models and finding inspiration from the series.

“We’re lucky enough to go to MJ’s house,” Kuerbis said. ” He has all kinds of Italian sports cars in his garage. It seems like he gets a new one every year. I don’t get to be around those cars very often. When I do, I like to spend time in there, open the door and sit inside. One time, he told me I could get in there and drive, but I didn’t want to have that Ferris Bueller moment and wreck it.”

The Look: Rosso CorsaNick DePaula/ESPNThe newest Air Jordan doesn’t feature “red,” but rather “rosso corsa,” the official color shade driven by the Italian racing team.

With parts and pieces strewn across a presentation table, it didn’t take long to spot the other Ferrari points of influence that made their way onto the sneaker. “If you look at the details, the craftsmanship, and the smell of the leathers, even the detailing on the steering wheel really inspired where we wanted to go with the design of the shoe,” Kuerbis said.

The Drawing Table: Visualizing the FutureNick DePaula/ESPNMost signature shoes are designed and created over a 14 to 18 month timeline. For Kuerbis, that meant a flurry of sketches and alternate looks, all pulling from the original Air Jordan II.

“When you’re sketching, you can just go for days,” he said. “Literally, I was filling up all kinds of notepads. Really, it’s about a gesture that feels new. Maybe it captures the essence of some of our past shoes, which is something special for Jordan, because we do have a legacy of amazing game shoes to be inspired by.”

The Meeting: Almost ThereCourtesy Jordan BrandAs with every Air Jordan, there’s the meeting. The designers will look to present a near finalized version of the shoe, eager for Michael’s final stamp of approval and sign off to go forward with the concept. For Kuerbis and the rest of the team, the XXXII experienced one last hiccup down the stretch.

“I showed up to Michael with paper put on the back, where the panel was going to go,” he said. “We had a sample that just had one piece on the back and we showed him. I said, ‘I think we figured it out.’ He goes, ‘You know, I think you guys are close, but it just doesn’t have that special touch to it.’ He said, ‘Doing something fun or having a dynamic piece on the back would be cool.’ I explored that part of the shoe for a super long time, and for me, that heel piece became the expressive piece.”

The Finishing Touch: MJ’s Title LegacyCourtesy Jordan BrandAfter Jordan’s feedback, it was back to the drawing board, prompting Kuerbis to sketch a new version of the shoe with a ribbed heel counter. The six notches are a nod to MJ’s six rings.

The Third Dimension: Knit FabricNick DePaula/ESPNThe past few Air Jordans have used a woven material for the majority of the upper. On the XXXII, the knit fabric provides more texture and variance. “It literally comes out of the machine in a three dimensional form,” Kuerbis said. “Woven and other materials are a flat material. This was really fun.”

The Challenge: Building “The Program”Nick DePaula/ESPNThroughout the ups and downs of the process, Kuerbis found himself making small changes that called for big efforts to execute. One tweak to the shoe’s knit pattern required an entirely new “program,” as he calls it.

“This was probably one of the more challenging game shoes that I’ve worked on,” Kuerbis said. “Just because Flyknit was new, and if you make a change, it’s not like you just go and cut a new piece. You have to talk to the programmer, and your poor programmer says, ‘Well, I just spent two days programming this knit, and you want to change it? That means a whole new pattern.’ By the end of it, we had over 300 programs for just the front part.”

The Technology: Evolution in AirNick DePaula/ESPNWhile the knit pattern and mix of leathers and suedes along the upper became the defining design solutions to solve for, the tech setup didn’t stray far from the Flight Speed cushioning platform seen in recent Air Jordans. The shoe once again incorporates two large volume “Zoom Air” units, with a carbon fiber and plastic spring plate helping to amplify the cushioning on each stride.

“With the Flight Speed setup, we really wanted to push the Zoom units and highlight that explosive first step,” Kuerbis said. “We looked at the 28 and the 29, and we knew those were really high performing shoes. With this big Zoom bag in the forefoot and the Zoom bag in the heel, in combination with the Flight Speed plate and some carbon, the responsiveness and the cushioning will hopefully have a propulsion type feel.”

The Shoe: Air Jordan XXXIINick DePaula/ESPNFor Jordan, the three decade homage to his second signature shoe captured that Italian essence that the brand’s designers had set out after.
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timberland boots roll top A rising star from Southeast Portland emerges for Timbers

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While some of his Centennial High School classmates earn extra cash by working minimum wage jobs making sandwiches, flipping burgers or frothing up Grande Lattes at Starbucks, Marco Farfan plays soccer for the Portland Timbers.

That’s right. Marco Farfan high school student/professional athlete.

As the youngest ever player to sign with the Timbers, Farfan has followed an unusual path. He made the leap this year from the Timbers youth academy team, signing a contract with the professional club worth $53,000 per year.

But while his life has changed dramatically over the last eight months, the 18 year old is quick to downplay his achievement. That might be because he doesn’t quite grasp how unusual his experience is.

“It took me about a month to get used to it, but now I’m just focused on working hard, so I can get better down the road,” Farfan said. “I’m 18 right now, but that’s not going to last forever. I have to have the right mindset that I can go out there every day and compete.”

Farfan grew up in a modest home on the border of Southeast Portland and Gresham dreaming of one day becoming a professional soccer player. But neither he nor his family imagined that he would make it to the pro level before earning his college diploma let alone before finishing high school.

His father, Roberto, who spent his own childhood in Mexico surrounded by an intense soccer crazed culture, made sure to teach all three of his children about his beloved sport. Games from Liga MX, Mexico’s top pro league, could often be heard blaring from the television in the family’s home.

It was Marco’s older brother, also named Roberto, who was the first to show real talent for the game. The younger Roberto played for Oregon State University and the Timbers U23 team and the family would make long drives to Corvallis on weekends to watch Roberto play. It was while watching those games that Marco fell in love with the sport.

By the age of five, Marco was spending sunny days in the yard with his close knit extended family using extra pairs of shoes as goal posts to play pick up games. His mother, Marisela, still keeps a box of photos for each of her three children and Marco’s box is full of smiling childhood pictures of him with a soccer ball.

“It just runs in the family,” Farfan said. “My dad and my brother introduced me to soccer when I was around five years old. I just liked it from the start.”

By the time he was in middle school, Farfan had joined the Eastside Timbers, one of the best club teams for top youth soccer players in Oregon. When he reached high school, he made the decision, like many of his soccer obsessed peers, to try out for the varsity team. He lettered as a freshman.

But everything changed for Farfan as a sophomore.

He left behind varsity soccer to join the Timbers U 16 Academy Team. Afternoons playing video games with friends were soon replaced with regimented workouts at the Timbers practice facility in Beaverton.

“I do think a lot of it is mental,” Farfan’s brother, Roberto, said. “He’s a lot more mature than I was at that age and that’s helping him a lot.”

Last year, the Timbers made the decision to give Farfan an initial opportunity with their lower division team, T2. Despite understandably feeling nervous in his first weeks playing alongside pro players, Farfan exceeded expectations.

Still, his family was caught off guard when the Timbers offered Marco a contract in October. There are currently 10 other American players Farfan’s age or younger competing in MLS and the league has a history of signing high school age players, most prominently Freddy Adu, who joined MLS at the age of 14 in 2002. But Farfan is the first academy product and youngest ever player to turn pro with the Timbers.

“It was a surprise for me to see how far he has gone,” said Marco’s father, Roberto, through a translator. “But slowly we are getting accustomed to it. Clearly, there is more that he has to accomplish. Nothing has been won as of yet. He knows that he has to work daily and be humble and keep his feet firmly placed on the ground.”

On a recent Tuesday afternoon, Farfan tossed his backpack into the backseat of the car he borrows from his dad and anxiously checked his watch.

He had spent the last few hours fiercely going toe to toe on the field with his Timbers teammates, some of whom are more than a decade older than he is, and hadn’t realized how late practice was running. He would have just enough time to make the 45 minute drive from the Timbers training facility to Centennial and slip into his English class before the bell.

“Sometimes I forget that he’s going to school on top of the soccer and having to commute back and forth and compartmentalize everything,” Timbers coach Caleb Porter said. “That’s not easy. It shows his maturity. He has a great head on his shoulders and that’s a big reason why he is able to do what he’s doing.”

While his daily routine can be hectic, Farfan never considered sacrificing his education for professional soccer.

Roberto and Marisela always emphasized the importance of earning an education to their three children and, while the walls in the family living room are devoid of photos displaying Farfan competing for the Timbers, there are prominent spots for the diplomas of his two siblings. Farfan plans to soon add his high school diploma to the wall before beginning to work toward earning a college degree likely in marketing through an online program with Southern New Hampshire University, the official education sponsor of MLS.

Still, Farfan had to work with Centennial to make his dual life as a professional athlete and high school student possible. The school generally requires students to take at least four classes, but administrators waived that requirement for Farfan, who was on track to have the minimum number of credits to graduate if he took just one class this spring. They allowed him to pick an afternoon timeslot, so he could come to school after practice.

“Obviously, my parents and I wanted me to keep going to school because soccer isn’t going to last forever,” Farfan said. “After soccer, I really want to already have my degree and be able to find a job.”

When he reached the parking lot at Centennial on that recent Tuesday, students were rushing to class, and no one seemed to take notice of the pro soccer player walking into the school.

A humble and quiet person by nature, Farfan didn’t tell any of his friends when he signed with the Timbers. But the news, of course, slipped out through social media. His friends had a hard time believing it was real. Some of his fellow classmates gawked in the hallway. And others suddenly tried to befriend the new pro athlete.

But the novelty of having a pro athlete at Centennial has worn off over time.

In his English class a difficult college level course Farfan pulled up a chair next to two friends and grabbed his laptop to work on his final project, a paper and PowerPoint on strengthening gun control. Every so often, his friends would make a joke and the three teenagers would try to suppress laughter. The topic of soccer hardly came up.

“I think there’s kind of some teasing that goes on, but it’s good natured,” Centennial English instructor Beth Lifson said. “He’s pretty well loved because of his demeanor. He’s humble and he’s laser focused on his goals.”
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Despite data being collected for over half a century, despite a President being warned about the looming threat of a changing climate in the mid 1960s, and despite plants and animals now changing their behaviour to fast altering conditions, a few scientists continue to raise doubts regarding climate science and its findings.

Naomi Oreskes sees a pattern. The pattern repeats itself in a string of issues including controversy over tobacco smoke, the dangers of acid rain, and DDT.

Naomi Oreskes tells the story in her book Merchants of Doubt and today on The Science Show we hear Naomi Oreskes in a public address at the University of NSW in 2010.

Robyn Williams: This is The Science Show on ABC Radio National, in which today we meet Naomi Oreskes from the University of California in San Diego. She’s a historian of science and she’s taken on a really perplexing puzzle why did climate science, once accepted by most, and really rather mainstream in the public mind, suddenly become a matter of controversial debate, even a political hot potato? Professor Oreskes has a story to tell. It’s in her book Merchants of Doubt, and it concerns watermelons, green on the outside, red within, and cigarettes, and Star Wars. Naomi Oreskes at the University of NSW.

Naomi Oreskes: Thank you so much, Robyn, for that generous introduction. So in 2005 my Austrian governor announced an initiative in California to commit the state of California to Kyoto level controls on greenhouse gas emissions. When he made this announcement he said, I say the debate is over, we know the science, we see the threat and we know the time for action is now. It’s not every day you get to agree with a politician, but I did agree with my governor. Indeed, I thought he was correct, we did know the science and we did see the threat. And in the mid 2000s it seemed that the American people had gotten the message.

A poll done by the Yale Project on Climate Change working together with the Gallup polling organisation showed that in 2007, 72% of Americans were completely or mostly convinced that global warming was underway. Indeed, 62% of American citizens believed that life on earth would continue without major disruptions only if society took immediate and drastic action to reduce global warming.

Indeed, at that time it did seem as if the debate was over, and even many prominent contrarians had come around and were accepting the scientific evidence. So for example one of these was Frank Luntz, a Republic Party strategist. And in 2006 he said, it’s now 2006. So he was off to a good start, he got the year right! I think most people would conclude that there is global warming taking place, and that the behaviour of humans are affecting the climate, still struggling with this syntax!

Luntz is important. The reason, he explained, was because climate change is a lot less frightening than global warming. He argued that Republican candidates running for office should use scientific uncertainty as a political strategy, that they should emphasise the scientific uncertainty around the issues and insist that there was no scientific consensus. So he wrote, ‘The scientific debate remains open, voters believe that there is no consensus about global warming within the scientific community. Should the public come to believe that the scientific issues are settled, their views about global warming will change accordingly. Therefore you need to continue to make the lack of scientific certainty a primary issue in the debate.’

So we see scientific uncertainty, the legitimate, real, normal uncertainty that’s part of all scientific research, being turned into a political tool. Now Luntz’s position was factually incorrect, the scientific debate was not still open. Indeed, in 2001 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change had written unequivocally, ‘Human activities are modifying the concentration of atmospheric constituents that absorb or scatter radiant energy. Most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations.’ So the IPCC said that in 2001. But in fact the science had actually coalesced earlier than that. In the second assessment report of the IPCC published in 1995, the scientists had written, ‘The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human impact on global climate.’

In my own research as a historian of science, I was interested in the question of whether or not the IPCC reports were an accurate reflection of the rank and file of the scientific community. Did those summaries in the IPCC and in the US National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society and many other scientific societies who had attempted to summarise the scientific work, were those summaries consistent with what was published in the rank and file, peer reviewed scientific journals?

So in 2003 I did an analysis of the scientific literature and found that through a random sample of 1,000 articles in the ISI, Institute for Scientific Information database, that in fact none of the articles dissented from that IPCC position. In fact, there was essentially unanimity in the scientific community that the balance of evidence did suggest a discernible impact, and that most of the observed warming was likely to have been due to greenhouse gas emissions. I published this in Science Magazine in 2004.

This result surprised many people, but it really should not have. It only surprised us because we had forgotten our own history. In 1992, 193 nations, including the United States and Australia, signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and when President George H. W. Bush signed the Framework Convention he called on world leaders to translate the written document into ‘concrete action to protect the planet’.

I’ve interviewed a number of people who were involved in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, asked them about what happened between then and now. One of them was Gus Speth who served on the Council of Environmental Quality in the Carter administration in the United States, and he said, ‘yes, we thought we were on track to make real changes.’

So what happened? What happened to this political consensus, this scientific consensus, that global warming was discernible? What happened to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change?

So what I want to do tonight is to give a very brief overview of the evolution of climate science, when scientists understood these different important facts about our climate system,
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and then a brief history of the emergence of a political challenge to that science. It’s a story of selling uncertainty to stave off government regulation and to protect the free market, as certain people understood it.

So for a historian of science, the beginning of the history of climate science could start probably most meaningfully with John Tyndall, who was the person who first established the concept of a greenhouse gas. So through a series of experiments in the 1850s, Tyndall showed that certain gases, particularly carbon dioxide and water vapour, had a very distinctive property of being highly transparent to visible light, but rather opaque to infrared. So water vapour and carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere allowed light to come in from the sun, but had a tendency to trap heat. Tyndall understood this is a very important fact about the earth, because without this natural greenhouse effect, the earth would be as cold as the moon or Mars and be a completely inhospitable place for life. So the natural greenhouse gas was basically a good thing.

The first person to suggest that changes in the greenhouse gas concentration could change the climate was this man Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish geochemist. Arrhenius was the first to suggest that by burning fossil fuels, mostly coal, we were adding additional carbon dioxide to the atmosphere above and beyond the natural CO 2 levels, and that this could change the climate through an increase in the absorption and trapping of heat in the atmosphere.

Arrhenius did the first calculations of the potential effect of doubling carbon dioxide, and calculated that doubling CO 2 would lead to an average global temperature increase of 1.5 to 4.5 centigrade. Arrhenius was Swedish, so he thought global warming would be a good thing! The first person to suggest that it might be a bad thing was Guy Stewart Callendar, a British steam engineer. In 1938, Callendar was the first to suggest that global warming was actually possibly already underway. He compiled some of the early measurements of CO 2 in the atmosphere from mostly in Europe, and in a publication in the quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society suggested that temperature might in fact already be beginning to increase. That was in 1938.

In 1939 war broke out in Europe, Callendar became involved in war work, as did many other scientists in various different disciplines. The issue was not really revisited in a serious way until the 1950s, when it was taken up by a number of scientists in Europe, the United States and here in Australia, and most particularly by two men, Hans Seuss and Roger Revelle, both professors at my university, the University of California in San Diego.

In 1957, Suess and Revelle published an article in the peer review journal, Tellus, in which they suggested that mankind was performing a great geophysical experiment, by taking carbon dioxide that had been stored in rocks over the course of hundreds of millions of years of geological history, and returning a very significant amount of that carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere over the course of only a few decades. This argument was also made by a number of people including Bert Bolin in Sweden, who later would work on acid rain and also found the IPCC.

So Revelle’s argument in 1957 was not that global warming was necessarily already underway, but that we needed to pay attention and track the issue. One of the most important ways to track it would be measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to see if Callendar was correct, that it was actually already increasing. Through the International Geophysical Year in 1957 58, he obtained funding for the beginning of this project to measure carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The person who undertook that work beginning in 1958 was Charles David Keeling, who began the systematic measurement of carbon dioxide as part of the International Geophysical Year. This became Dave Keeling’s life work. He continued it until he died just a few years ago. For this he won the National Medal of Science in the United States, awarded to him by President George W. Bush, and he produced what is now known as the Keeling Curve, which today is probably the single most reproduced time series data in the history of science.

What Keeling was able to show was that there was a systematic seasonal variability of carbon dioxide associated with photosynthesis, summer in the northern hemisphere where most of the land masses are, and by 1965 Keeling had already concluded that there was in fact a detectable increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This result led to the US President Science Advisory Committee writing a report with an appendix written by Revelle and Keeling, in which they made one of the early specific predictions of what the impact of increasing carbon dioxide might be. In 1965, they wrote, ‘By the year 2000 there will be about 25% more CO 2 in our atmosphere than at present, and this will modify the heat balance of the atmosphere to such an extent that marked changes in climate could occur.’ So that was in 1965.

Now it’s often said that politicians never listen to scientists, but that’s not always true. In this case, Keeling and Revelle’s report landed on the desk of President Lyndon Johnson, and in 1965 in a special message to congress Lyndon Jonson declared, ‘This generation has altered the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale through a steady increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels.’ So if anyone says nobody knew, nobody could’ve know, we simply know that that’s not true.

There’s a lot of science that then begins to develop at this time, as the US government and other European governments and others begin to invest money in climate science research, but the most important is that this scientific insight coincides with the development of digital computing. By the late 1960s and early 1970s we see the rise of computer modelling and the construction of the first general circulation models, to model what happens to the atmosphere when you change the amount of greenhouse gases in it.

There was soon an emerging consensus in the expert community that given the rise of CO 2 that Keeling had documented, sooner or later warming would be expected to occur. This consensus was expressed by numerous different scientific bodies in many parts of the world. But one of the most concise summaries came from the US National Academy of Sciences in 1979, who wrote, ‘a plethora of studies from diverse sources indicates a consensus that climate changes will result from man’s combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land use’.

This is a very interesting quote, because sceptics love to say that science is not about consensus. They like to quote Galileo saying that ‘science advances by the work of heroic individuals’, and of course sometimes that’s true. Heroic individuals have played a role in the history of science. But it’s interesting to me to see here the National Academy of Sciences using consensus as their word, their category, to summarise what it is that scientists believe they know at this moment in time. What they know is that climate changes will result, that this will happen, from man’s using fossil fuels and changes in land use. We’ve also seen some sceptics complain that the scientific community has not paid enough attention to land use changes, but we see it right here in 1979.

Robyn Williams: You’re listening to The Science Show on ABC Radio National, Professor Naomi Oreskes at the University of NSW.

Naomi Oreskes: So scientists had a consensus that global warming would occur, but what they did not have a consensus about is when this would happen. In fact, the when part of the question was quite contested,
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and there was a big difference of opinion among scientists right in the 1970s about how soon any of these changes might actually become detectable.